Case Study 05

Haplogroup R1A1

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M168 > P143 > M89 > L15 > M9 > M45 > M207 > M173 > SRY10831.2 > M17 (Set of markers that together identify the haplogroup, the changes in the Y-chromosome they indicate occurred in the order listed here)
HARTOSH SINGH BAL | FATHER: Jutt Sikh | Haplogroup R1a1 is found in greater percentage among speakers of the Indo-European languages (such as Hindi, Punjabi and Bengali)

The genetic markers that define this ancestral history go back roughly 60,000 years to the first common marker of all non-African men, M168, and follow this lineage to M17, the defining marker of haplogroup R1a1 (SRY10831.2). Today, a large concentration—around 40 percent—of men living in the Czech Republic across the steppes to Siberia, and south throughout Central Asia are members of haplogroup R1a1 (SRY10831.2). In India, around 35 percent of the men in Hindi-speaking populations belong to this group.

For description of the changes from M168>P143>M89, read the analysis of John Abraham’s results.

M9

TIME OF EMERGENCE: Roughly 50,000 years ago 

PLACE OF ORIGIN: Africa

TIME OF EMERGENCE: 40,000 years ago

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF HOMO SAPIENS: TENS OF THOUSANDS

The branch of the F Haplogroup defined by M9 is known as the K haplogroup, now found in small numbers in the Subcontinent, Oceania and Australia.

M45

TIME OF EMERGENCE: 35,000 years ago

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF HOMO SAPIENS: approximately 100,000

This branch of K Haplogroup defined by the M45 marker and identified as Haplogroup P gave rise to most Europeans and nearly all Native American men. The NGP places its origins in Central Asia. Its presence among the tribes of India, Manipuri Muslims and Nepalis does not fit this explanation, but clearly at some point, men bearing this marker moved north into Siberia and crossed over the Bering Strait into North America

(The map is based on the National Geographic version of the migration of the Haplogroup. The text updates this version based on recent research and offers a differing version.)

M207

TIME OF EMERGENCE: 30,000 years ago

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF HOMO SAPIENS: approximately 100,000

This branch of Haplogroup P is defined by the M207 marker and identified as Haplogroup R. According to the NGP, this marker first arose in a Haplogroup P individual in Central Asia and his descendants split into two distinct groups, with one continuing onto the European subcontinent, and the other group turning south and eventually making it as far as India.

M173: Colonising Europe—The First Modern Europeans

TIME OF EMERGENCE: around 30,000 years ago

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF HOMO SAPIENS: approximately 100,000

The branch of R with the additional marker M173 is termed the R1 Haplogroup. Most modern Europeans trace their descent to individuals from this haplogroup. Not surprisingly, today the number of descendants of the man who gave rise to marker M173 remains very high in Western Europe.

M17: The Indo-Europeans of the Steppes of Asia

TIME OF EMERGENCE: 15,000 to 20,000 years ago

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF HOMO SAPIENS: A few million

According to the NGP, this trail ends with a marker that arose between 10,000 to 15,000 years ago on the grassy steppes in the region of present-day Ukraine or southern Russia. His descendents eventually spread as far afield as India and Iceland. Archaeologists speculate that these people were the first to domesticate the horse, which would have eased their distant migrations. In addition to genetic and archaeological evidence, the spread of languages can also be used to trace prehistoric migration patterns. The descendants of this clan may be responsible for the birth and spread of Indo-European languages. The world’s most widely spoken language family, Indo-European tongues include English, French, German, Russian, Spanish, several Indian languages such as Bengali and Hindi, and numerous others. Many of the Indo-European languages share similar words for animals, plants, tools and weapons. Its distribution adds weight to linguistic and archaeological evidence suggesting that a large migration from the Asian steppes into India occurred within the last 10,000 years.

But this highly contentious claim has largely been called into question by recent genetic work originating in the Subcontinent. The diversity and antiquity of Haplogroup R1a1 in India suggests its origins lie in South Asia. The haplogroup has been found in substantial numbers among some tribes such as the Sahariyas of Central India and the Chenchus of Andhra where its age seems to be well over 15,000 years. This allows for just one possibility, a migration out of India to Southern Russia onward to the Czech Republic and even Scandinavia.